Class 10 Science Handwritten Notes

Class 10 Science Handwritten Notes
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Credit: Written by brilliant student of class 10 Shrishti Aggarwal, and  checked by Shaurya Sharma

Complete NCERT 10th class science notes for quick revision:- 


Chapter 1: Chemical Reactions and Equations

  • Chemical reactions are processes in which one or more substances are transformed into new substances.
  • A chemical equation is a symbolic representation of a chemical reaction, showing the reactants and products and their relative quantities.
  • The law of conservation of mass states that the total mass of the reactants must equal the total mass of the products in a chemical reaction.
  • Reactants are the starting materials in a chemical reaction and products are the substances formed as a result of the reaction.
  • Types of chemical reactions include synthesis, decomposition, replacement, and redox reactions.

Chapter 2: Acids, Bases, and Salts

  • Acids are substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+) in solution, and bases are substances that produce hydroxide ions (OH-) in solution.
  • The pH scale is used to describe the acidity or basicity of a solution, with a pH of 7 considered neutral, a pH less than 7 considered acidic, and a pH greater than 7 considered basic.
  • Bases can be strong or weak, depending on how completely they dissociate into ions in solution.
  • Salts are ionic compounds that form from the reaction of an acid and a base.

Chapter 3: Metals and Non-Metals

  • Metals are elements that are good conductors of heat and electricity, have a shiny appearance, and are malleable and ductile.
  • Non-metals are elements that are poor conductors of heat and electricity, have a dull appearance, and are not malleable or ductile.
  • Properties of metals and non-metals can be used to explain their reactivity and their role in chemical reactions.

Chapter 4: Carbon and its Compounds

  • Carbon is an element that has the unique ability to form large, complex molecules with a variety of chemical and physical properties.
  • Hydrocarbons are organic compounds made up of only carbon and hydrogen. Alkanes are a type of hydrocarbon with only single bonds between the carbon atoms.
  • Alkenes and alkynes are hydrocarbons with one or more double or triple bonds, respectively.
  • Functional groups are specific arrangements of atoms that give organic compounds characteristic chemical and physical properties.

Chapter 5: Periodic Classification of Elements

  • The periodic table is a chart that arranges elements into groups based on their atomic number and electron configurations.
  • Elements in the same group have similar chemical and physical properties, making the periodic table a useful tool for predicting and explaining chemical reactions and properties.
  • The periodic table is also useful for predicting trends in properties such as atomic size, ionization energy, and electron affinity as you move from one element to the next.


Chapter 6: Life Processes

  • Life processes are functions that are essential for the survival and growth of living organisms.
  • Nutrition is the process by which living organisms obtain energy and materials from food.
  • Respiration is the process by which living organisms convert food into energy.
  • Transportation is the process by which substances are transported within living organisms to support growth and maintain homeostasis.
  • Excretion is the process by which living organisms remove waste products from their bodies.
  • Reproduction is the process by which living organisms produce offspring, either sexually or asexually.

Chapter 7: Control and Coordination

  • Control and coordination are essential processes in living organisms that ensure proper functioning and survival.
  • The nervous system is responsible for control and coordination in animals, using electrical and chemical signals to transmit information and coordinate movement.
  • The endocrine system is responsible for control and coordination in animals, using hormones to regulate growth, metabolism, and other processes.
  • The plant kingdom also has mechanisms for control and coordination, including phototropism and geotropism.

Chapter 8: How do Organisms Reproduce?

  • Reproduction is the process by which living organisms produce offspring, either sexually or asexually.
  • Sexual reproduction involves the fusion of male and female gametes to produce a new organism with unique genetic characteristics.
  • Asexual reproduction involves the production of offspring without the fusion of gametes, resulting in offspring with identical genetic material.
  • Modes of asexual reproduction include budding, fragmentation, and spore formation.

Chapter 9: Heredity and Evolution

  • Heredity is the transmission of genetic information from one generation to the next.
  • Gregor Mendel's experiments with pea plants demonstrated the principles of dominant and recessive genes, as well as the principles of segregation and independent assortment.
  • Charles Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection states that species change over time through the accumulation of advantageous traits.
  • Evidence for evolution includes the fossil record, comparative anatomy, and comparative biochemistry.


Chapter 10: Light Reflection and Refraction

  • Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation that travels in straight lines and can be reflected and refracted.
  • Reflection of light occurs when light waves encounter a surface and bounce back.
  • Refraction of light occurs when light waves enter a material with a different refractive index and change direction.
  • The angle of incidence, angle of reflection, and angle of refraction are related by the laws of reflection and refraction.
  • Refraction of light is used in lenses and prisms to form images and produce spectra.

Chapter 11: Human Eye and Colorful World

  • The human eye is a complex optical instrument that captures and processes light to form an image.
  • The structure of the human eye includes the cornea, iris, pupil, lens, retina, and optic nerve.
  • The process of vision involves the reflection of light, refraction by the cornea and lens, and the stimulation of photoreceptor cells in the retina.
  • The perception of color is based on the response of photoreceptor cells in the retina to different wavelengths of light.

Chapter 12: Electricity

  • Electricity is a form of energy that is associated with the flow of charged particles.
  • Electric current is the flow of charged particles, and is measured in units of amperes (A).
  • Electric potential difference, also known as voltage, is the measure of energy per unit charge, and is measured in volts (V).
  • Electric resistance is the property of a material that resists the flow of electric current, and is measured in ohms (Ω).
  • Ohm's law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the potential difference across the two points.

Chapter 13: Magnetic Effects of Electric Current

  • Magnetic effects of electric current refer to the interaction between magnetic fields and electric currents.
  • A magnetic field is a field of force that surrounds a moving electric charge or a current-carrying wire.
  • The direction of the magnetic field produced by a current-carrying wire can be determined using the right-hand rule.
  • Electromagnetic induction is the process by which a changing magnetic field induces an electric current in a conductor.

Chapter 14: Sources of Energy

  • Energy is an essential resource that is used to power many processes and activities.
  • Sources of energy can be classified into two categories: renewable and non-renewable.
  • Renewable sources of energy include solar, wind, hydro, and biomass.
  • Non-renewable sources of energy include fossil fuels (coal, oil, and natural gas) and nuclear energy.
  • It is important to use energy resources in a sustainable manner to conserve them for future generations.

Chapter 15: Our Environment

  • Our environment encompasses all living and non-living things that surround us.
  • Environmental problems, such as air and water pollution, deforestation, and global warming, are affecting the health of our planet.
  • Human activities, such as industrialization, urbanization, and overconsumption of natural resources, are major contributors to environmental degradation.
  • To protect the environment, it is important to reduce waste, conserve resources, and adopt sustainable practices.

I hope these notes will help you further in your studies of Class 10 Science. Good luck!

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