CBSE Notes for Class 10 Science

CBSE Notes for Class 10 Science
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CBSE Notes for Class 10 Science

here is a sample syllabus for CBSE Class 10 Science:

UnitTopicsKey Notes
1Chemical Reactions and EquationsTypes of chemical reactions, balancing chemical equations, oxidation-reduction reactions
2Acids, Bases, and SaltsDefinition of acids, bases, and salts, indicators, neutralization reactions
3Metals and Non-MetalsProperties of metals and non-metals, reactivity series, extraction of metals
4Carbon and its CompoundsProperties of carbon, allotropes of carbon, importance of carbon compounds
5Periodic Classification of ElementsMendeleev's periodic table, modern periodic table, trends in properties of elements
6Life ProcessesNutrition, digestion, respiration, transportation in plants, transportation in animals
7Control and CoordinationTypes of nervous system, hormones, coordination in animals
8How do Organisms Reproduce?Asexual reproduction, sexual reproduction, human reproduction
9Heredity and EvolutionGene, allele, genetic disorders, evolution by natural selection
10Light- Reflection and RefractionLaws of reflection and refraction, spherical mirrors, spherical lenses
11Human Eye and Colorful WorldStructure and function of the human eye, defects of vision, rainbow formation
12ElectricityConductors, insulators, electric circuits, electric potential and potential difference
13Magnetic Effects of Electric CurrentElectromagnetic induction, AC and DC current
14Sources of EnergyConventional and non-conventional sources of energy, energy conservation
15Our EnvironmentNatural resources, environmental pollution, greenhouse effect, depletion of ozone layer

Please note that this syllabus is a sample and may vary based on the actual syllabus provided by CBSE.

Short notes and important points of each unit in the CBSE Class 10 Science syllabus:

  1. Chemical Reactions and Equations:

    • Chemical reactions are processes in which one or more substances are transformed into new substances.
    • Balancing chemical equations involves adjusting the coefficients of reactants and products to make sure that the number of atoms of each element is conserved in the reaction.
    • Oxidation-reduction reactions, also known as redox reactions, are a type of chemical reaction that involves the transfer of electrons from one species to another.
  2. Acids, Bases, and Salts:

    • Acids are substances that release hydrogen ions (H+) in aqueous solution.
    • Bases are substances that release hydroxide ions (OH-) in aqueous solution.
    • Salts are the products of the reaction between acids and bases.
    • Indicators are substances that change color based on the acidity or basicity of the solution they are in.
    • Neutralization reactions are reactions between acids and bases that result in the formation of salts and water.
  3. Metals and Non-Metals:

    • Metals are elements that are good conductors of heat and electricity, are malleable and ductile, and have a high luster.
    • Non-metals are elements that are poor conductors of heat and electricity, are not malleable or ductile, and have a dull appearance.
    • The reactivity series is a list of elements in order of their reactivity, from most reactive to least reactive.
    • The extraction of metals involves separating the metal from its ore, typically through a combination of heating and chemical processes.
  4. Carbon and its Compounds:

    • Carbon is a unique element in that it forms a large number of compounds, including both organic and inorganic compounds.
    • Allotropes of carbon are different forms of carbon, such as graphite, diamond, and fullerenes.
    • Carbon compounds are important because they form the basis of life on earth and are also used in a wide range of industrial applications.
  5. Periodic Classification of Elements:

    • Mendeleev's periodic table is a table of elements arranged in order of increasing atomic number and grouped based on their chemical and physical properties.
    • The modern periodic table is based on Mendeleev's work but has been modified to take into account the discovery of new elements and the recognition of new trends in element properties.
    • Trends in element properties include the size of atoms, electron configurations, reactivity, and chemical behavior.
  6. Life Processes:

    • Nutrition is the process by which organisms take in and use food to maintain life.
    • Digestion is the process by which food is broken down into smaller molecules that can be absorbed and used by the body.
    • Respiration is the process by which cells release energy stored in food molecules.
    • Transportation in plants involves the movement of water, nutrients, and sugars through the plant.
    • Transportation in animals involves the movement of blood and other bodily fluids to deliver oxygen and nutrients and remove waste products.
  7. Control and Coordination:

    • The nervous system is the body's electrical communication system and is responsible for transmitting signals from one part of the body to another.
    • Hormones are chemical messengers produced by glands in the body that regulate various functions, such as growth and metabolism.
    • Coordination in animals involves the coordinated actions of muscles, bones, and the nervous system to produce movement
  8. How do Organisms Reproduce?

    • Reproduction is the process by which organisms produce offspring that are similar to themselves.
    • Asexual reproduction involves the production of offspring without the involvement of gametes or sex cells.
    • Sexual reproduction involves the fusion of gametes to produce offspring that have genetic material from both parents.
    • Fertilization is the process by which sperm and egg fuse to form a zygote, which eventually develops into a new individual.
  9. Heredity and Evolution:

    • Heredity is the transmission of traits from parent to offspring.
    • Gregor Mendel is known as the father of genetics for his work on the laws of inheritance.
    • The laws of inheritance describe the pattern in which traits are passed from parent to offspring.
    • Evolution is the process by which species change over time through the accumulation of genetic changes.
    • Charles Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection states that species that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce.
  10. Light- Reflection and Refraction:

    • Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation that travels in straight lines and can be described by its wavelength and frequency.
    • Reflection is the bouncing back of light when it strikes a surface.
    • The angle of incidence is the angle between the incoming light and the normal to the surface.
    • The angle of reflection is the angle between the reflected light and the normal to the surface.
    • Refraction is the bending of light when it passes from one medium to another with a different refractive index.
    • Lenses are curved pieces of glass or other transparent material that can be used to focus light.
    1. The Human Eye and the Colorful World:
    • The human eye is a complex organ that allows us to see by converting light into electrical signals that can be interpreted by the brain.
    • The retina is the inner layer of the eye that contains the photoreceptor cells responsible for detecting light.
    • The cornea and the lens are part of the eye's optical system and help to focus light on the retina.
    • Color is a property of light that is perceived by the human eye and is determined by the wavelength of the light.
    1. Electricity:
    • Electricity is the flow of charged particles, typically electrons.
    • Electric current is the flow of electric charge.
    • Electric circuits are arrangements of electrical components, such as batteries, resistors, and wires, that allow electricity to flow.
    • Ohm's law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the voltage across the two points and inversely proportional to the resistance between them.
    • Electric power is the rate at which energy is transferred in an electric circuit and is equal to the product of the voltage and current in the circuit.
    1. Magnetic Effects of Electric Current:
    • Magnets are objects that produce a magnetic field.
    • The magnetic field is a region of influence around a magnet in which it can exert a force on other magnets or moving charges.
    • Moving charges produce a magnetic field, and this magnetic field can be used to generate an electric current.
    • Electromagnets are temporary magnets that are created by running an electric current through a coil of wire.
    1. Sources of Energy:
    • Energy is the ability to do work and is present in a variety of forms, including thermal

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